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Only the contemplative life while in the body prepares the intellect, which has to use the corporeal external and internal senses to acquire knowledge and gain the predisposition for thinking the intelligibles, for the contemplative life after death. definition: a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life significance: most successful missionaries, helped spread Hajj definition: the fifth pillar of Islam, a pilgrimage to Mecca significance: A large part of a Muslim’s life, symbol of religious unity IBN SINA (980–1037) Ibn Sina (Avicenna), was a poet, music theorist, astronomer, and politician, but he was best known as a philosopher and asa medical doctor. Avicenna calls this process of acquisition or apprehension of the intelligibles a “contact” (ittiṣāl) between the human and active Sheikh. as it was intuitively acknowledged in the Islamic world where he is The inspiration here is clearly the beginning of Aristotle’s Posterior Analytics (cf. Ibn Sina’s metaphysics His father having died in the meantime, he was forced to take up, but clearly had no difficulty in finding, a post in the financial administration of the Samanids. beginning with the 12th century, Avicenna’s In both of these books he left out the mathematical sciences and the subjects of practical philosophy, only the former of which was later supplemented by Jūzjānī, first in Arabic and then in Persian, on the basis of earlier writings by Avicenna. –––, 2004, “The Pseudo-Avicennan Corpus, I: Methodological Considerations,” in McGinnis with Reisman 2004, pp. But in addition to intelligible knowledge, the divine effluence from the intellects and the souls of the celestial spheres also includes information about events on earth, past, present, and future—what Avicenna calls “the unseen” (al-ghayb)—, for all of which the intellects and souls of the celestial spheres are directly responsible. Performance of this second task, in turn, entailed the third, the accuracy and verifiability of the knowledge which would constitute the contents of his updated philosophy. Abū Alī al-Ḥusayn Ibn Sīnā (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Avicenna, 980–1037 AD; 370–428 AH) was a Muslim Persian polymath and the foremost physician and philosopher of his time. On coming to be and passing away (Aristotle’s, Arithmetic (Nicomachus of Gerasa, Diophantus, Euclid, Thābit b. Qurra, and others), Universal Science: the study of being as being, first philosophy, natural theology (Aristotle’s, Metaphysics of the Rational Soul (phenomena of religious and paranormal life studied as functions of the rational soul), Prophetic legislation as the basis for the three parts of practical philosophy, Politics (prescriptions by the prophet legislator for public administration and political ruler to succeed him; [Plato’s and Aristotle’s books on politics]), Household management (prescriptions of the prophet legislator for family law; [Bryson’s, Ethics (as legislated by a caliph; [Aristotle’s, Adamson, P., 2004, “Non-Discursive Thought in Avicenna’s Commentary on the Theology of Aristotle,” in, Biesterfeldt, H.H., 2000. Spell. Lizzini 2009). 2014), along with two incomplete recensions of his commentary on the Theology of Aristotle (GS 11b; Vajda 1951). Yathrib. The logistics of the reception of information from the supernal world thus varies in accordance with what is being communicated and who is receiving it, but in all cases the recipient has to be ready and predisposed to receive it. Barhebraeus in his Syriac Cream of Wisdom). The Jewish precision. As he put it, “it behooves his [Aristotle’s] successors to gather the loose ends he left, repair any breach they find in what he constructed, and supply corollaries to fundamental principles he presented” (GS 8, 2–3; transl. It is important to realize that this is not because the intellect does not have the constitution to have purely intellective knowledge, like the celestial spheres, but because its existence in the sublunar world of time and perishable matter precludes its understanding the intelligibles through their causes. For him, God is the basic cause and so it is both the essence and the existence. In an effort to reach a wider audience, he expressed his theories on the rational soul in two allegories, Alive, Son of Awake (Ḥayy b. Yaqẓān, GM 7; Goichon 1959) and The Bird (GM 8; Heath 1990), and he versified still others: The Divine Pearl (al-Jumāna al-ilāhiyya) on the oneness of God and the emanated creation in 334 verses (GM 9), The Science of Logic, in verse, in 290 lines (GL 4), and a number of poems on medical subjects, notably his Medicine, in verse, in 1326 lines (GMed 27), which was commented upon by Averroes. His treatise on philosophy, the Cure, or al Shifa, was greatly influential on European scholastics, such as Thomas Aquinas. thinking in Greek late antiquity and early Lameer 2006). This was the result of the cultural, scientific, and philosophical effervescence taking place in Baghdad due to the rationalistic outlook in political and social affairs espoused by the ʿAbbāsid dynasty upon its accession to power in 750 and the attendant Graeco-Arabic translation movement (Gutas 1998; Gutas 2014a, 359–62). author of Canon of Medicine. Avicenna grew up and was educated there and began his philosophical career as a member of the educated elite in political circles close to the Samanids. It is this understanding that enabled Avicenna to have a progressive view of the history of philosophy and set the framework for his philosophical project. To have thought so would have negated the entire philosophical project Avicenna so painstakingly constructed. science, religion, theology, and mysticism. revealed religion and its theological and mystical elaborations. What is more, he also stated that Ibn Sina at the age of 17 authored a book on prosody titled, Mo’tassam Al-Shuara Fi Al-Arood (The Prosody Mainstay for Poets) [vii] . Ibn Sina. ... Start studying World History Chapter 11. Somebody whose internal sense of imagination or estimation is overactive, for example, may be hindered thereby in the clear reception of dream images so that his dreams would require interpretation, while someone else not so afflicted may get clearer messages; or a soothsayer who wishes to receive information about the future has to run long and hard in order to bring about such a humoral equilibrium through the exertion, thereby preparing his intellect to receive the message. It is also our most extensive source about Avicenna’s life and times. Bukhara lies on one of the main trade routes of the Silk Road between Samarkand and Marw, and like these and other cities along the Silk Road, had been economically and culturally active from pre-Islamic times. The Canon of Medicine (Arabic: القانون في الطب ‎ al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb; Persian: قانون در طب) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian Muslim physician-philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025. first in Jurjan, off the southeastern Caspian, and then going on into the Iranian heartland, in Ray (1014?–1015), in Hamadhan (1015–1024? –––, 2014b-VII, “The Empiricism of Avicenna,” in Gutas 2014b, article VII. His fame grew, and when he was twenty-one he was asked by a neighbor named ʿArūḍī to write a “comprehensive work” on all philosophy, which he did (Philosophy for ʿArūḍī, GS 2), treating all subjects listed above except mathematics; another neighbor, Baraqī, asked for commentaries on the books of philosophy on all these subjects—essentially the works of Aristotle—and he obliged with a twenty-volume work he called The Available and the Valid (i.e., of Philosophy, GS 10) and a two-volume work on the practical sciences, Piety and Sin (GPP 1). and To these philosophers should be added the philosophically sophisticated theologians of the various Muʿtazilite branches (one of whose most prominent representatives, the judge ʿAbd-al-Jabbār, Avicenna may have met in Ray between 1013 and 1015). Verifiability depends on two interdependent factors for the person doing the verification: following a productive method and having the mental apparatus to employ that method and understand its results. philosopher and physician of the Islamic With this secure and syllogistically verified knowledge, the prophet then is in a position to legislate and regulate social life as well as have a legitimate ground for gaining consent. The Roman Orthodox in It comes about after prolonged engagement with intellective techniques through syllogistic means until the human intellect is not obstructed by the internal or external senses and has acquired a certain familiarity or “intimacy” with its object, “without, however, the middle term ceasing to be present.” This kind of intellection is accompanied by an emotive state of joy and pleasure (Gutas 2006a,b). What this viewpoint forgets is that while medieval Europe had its intellectual difficulties, the medieval Islamic world did not. Furthermore, the Islamic tradition before Avicenna was not any less unhomogeneous, as it was represented by the eclectic al-Kindī and his disciples, the Aristotelians of Baghdad, and the sui generis Rhazes (of whom Avicenna thought little even as a physician). His other masterpiece, the Book of Healing, is a philosophical treatise dealing with the soul. He wrote more, and more frequently, on these two subjects than on anything else. Many Islamic medical texts, such as Ibn Sina’s Canon of Medicine, Al-Razi’s Libor Almartsoris and Al-Zahrawi’s Kitab al Tasrif became central to medical education in European universities for hundreds of years. He had many skills and professions, and he wrote approximately 450 books and … For although the knowledge to be acquired, in itself and on the transcendent plane of the eternal celestial intellects, is a closed system and hence static, on a human level and in history it is evolutionary. –––, 2013, “The Life and Times of Avicenna. It is for this reason that we find Avicenna, involved in certain political/intellectual controversies in some of the cities in which he lived, addressing to political elites a scientific treatise instead of political oratory in his defense (Michot 2000; Reisman 2013, 14–22; Gutas 2014a, personal writings listed on p. 503). There being three terms in a syllogism, two of which, the minor and the major, are present in the conclusion, the syllogism that leads to that conclusion can be constructed only if one figures out or guesses correctly what the middle term is that explains the connection between the two extreme terms. Avicenna’s identification of hitting upon the middle term as the central element in logical analysis on the one hand established that the syllogistic structure of all knowledge is also as it is thought by the celestial intellects, and on the other enabled Avicenna to unify and integrate the different levels of its acquisition by the human intellect within a single explanatory model. In the second, also his very last summa, he diverged even more drastically from traditional modes of presentation and developed an allusive and suggestive style which he called “pointers and reminders” (al-Ishārāt wa-l-tanbīhāt, GS 9). Janssens, J., and D. De Smet (eds. It proved hugely popular as a succinct though frequently amphibolous statement of his mature philosophy, open to interpretation, and it became the object of repeated commentaries throughout the centuries, apparently as Avicenna must have intended. He says specifically, “The active principle [i.e. Ibn Khaldūn was born in Tunis in 1332; the Khaldūniyyah quarter Gutas 2014a, 184). This is also evident in his disregard (rather than neglect?) Avicenna’s rationalist empiricism is the main reason why he strove in his philosophy on the one hand to perfect and fine-tune logical method and on the other to study, at an unprecedented level of sophistication and precision, the human (rational) soul and cognitive processes which provide knowledge through the application of rational empirical methods. that encompassed and explained all reality, including the tenets of It dominated intellectual life in the Islamic Under the Samanids in the 9th and 10th centuries, who followed a deliberate agenda of Persian linguistic revival as well as promotion of the high Arabic-Islamic culture radiating from the center of the Islamic world, Baghdad, it provided a sophisticated and refined milieu for the cultivation of the arts and sciences. In the 14th century, the Moroccan wanderer Ibn Battuta allegedly spent nearly 30 years traveling some 75,000 miles across Africa, the Middle East, India and Southeast Asia. Tibb philosophy not only recognizes that the body, mind and soul are interconnected, but also the relationship between the microcosm (man) and the macrocosm (the universe) and that both health and disease have a physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual influences. His full name, as given in the Rihla, was Shams al-Din Abu’Abdallah Muhammad ibn’Abdallah ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Lawati al-Tanji ibn Battuta and all that is known of his family comes from the Rihla which records references to his education and provides his lineage.He seems to have gone by the na… All issues relating to the cognitive side of religion he added to the traditional contents of metaphysics, and those relating to the social side he added to the practical sciences. 109–119. Constantinople were quite indifferent to philosophical developments Avicenna lived his philosophy, and his desire to communicate it beyond what his personal circumstances required, as an intellectual in the public eye, is manifest in the various compositional styles and different registers of language that he used. The Autobiography, written at a time when Avicenna had reached his philosophical maturity, touches upon a number of issues that he felt were highly significant in his formation as a thinker and accordingly point the way to his approach to philosophy and his philosophical aims and orientation. al-raʾīs), after Aristotle, whom Avicenna called He was also a logician, mathematician and a poet. For Ibn Sina, gaining education was of foremost importance. This makes it necessary for Avicenna to have an empirical theory of knowledge, according to which “the senses are the means by which the human soul acquires different kinds of knowledge (maʿārif ),” and man’s predisposition for the primary notions and principles of knowledge, which come to him unawares, is itself actualized by the experience of particulars (GS 12a, 23; transl. It is a difficult work, and it must be understood always through constant reference to the more explicit expository statement of Avicenna’s theories in The Cure. Avicenna took this book seriously, following both the curriculum, in which this book was made the center of logical practice, and especially his two Peripatetic predecessors in Baghdad, Abū-Bishr Mattā and al-Fārābī, who made it the cornerstone of their philosophy and advertised its virtues (cf. 970–1037) was the preeminent Regarded as one of the most influential thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age, Ibn Sina wrote extensively on philosophy of ethics and metaphysics, medicine, astronomy, alchemy, geology psychology and Islamic theology. On the social side of religion, he added a fourth subdivision to practical philosophy (in addition to ethics, household management, and politics) which he called “the discipline of legislating” (al-ṣināʿa al-shāriʿa, Kaya 2012; Kaya 2014; Gutas 2014a, 470–471, 497). Complete happiness (eudaimonia, saʿāda) is As Avicenna explains his title, “I divided [in the book] scholars into two groups, the Westerners [the Greek commentarial tradition and the Baghdad Aristotelians] and the Easterners [Avicenna’s positions], and I had the Easterners argue against the Westerners until I intervened to judge fairly when there was a real point of dispute between them” (GS 14, 375; transl. Gutas 2014a, 18). Up until that time, philosophical treatises on discrete subjects and abstruse commentaries, the two dominant forms of philosophical discourse, as just indicated, were matters for specialists that could not and did not claim endorsement or allegiance from society as a whole; the philosophical summa did. For Avicenna, the proper subject of natural philosophy, in itsbroadest or most general sense, is body insofar as it is subject tomotion. Ibn Sina [Avicenna]: metaphysics | For example, Ibn Sina (known in the West as Avicenna), was a philosopher, physician and astronomer who also wrote on the subjects of alchemy, geography, geology, psychology, theology, logic, mathematics, physics and education. medical instruction in European universities until the 17th Avicenna’s name only through its occurrence in the Greek Ibn Sina [Avicenna]: logic | However, the identity between absolute knowledge, in the form of the intelligibles contained in the intellects of the celestial spheres, and philosophy, as recorded in the Aristotelian tradition, is not complete. For Ibn Sina, people can be categorized on the basis of their ability to grasp the intelligible. its integral and comprehensive articulation of science and philosophy, Born in Afshana, Bukhara in Central Asia, his work on medicine, specifically the Canon, or the Qanun fil Tibb, was taught in schools in the Islamic world and in Europe alike till the early modern era. translations of the Latin scholastics that began after the Ibn Sina, also known by his Latinized name in Europe as Avicenna, was a Persian philosopher and polymath, born in 980 CE. The imperative to know, and to know rationally, which is the motivation behind Avicenna’s conception and then realization of his scientific system, is based on Aristotle’s concept of happiness as the activity of that which differentiates humans from all other organic life, of the mind (Nicomachean Ethics X.7, 1177b19–25): “the activity of the intellect is thought to be distinguished by hard work (spoudê, ijtihād), since it employs theory, and it does not desire to have any other end at all except itself; and it has its proper pleasure …. ], Arabic and Islamic Philosophy, historical and methodological topics in: Greek sources | Traditionally it has rarely been read except together with a commentary, notably those of Fakhr-ad-Dīn al-Rāzī and especially Naṣīr-ad-Dīn Avicenna complied, and thus was born the first philosophical summa treating in a systematic and consistent fashion within the covers of a single book all the branches of logic and theoretical philosophy as classified in the Aristotelian tradition. 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